Doctor Hermann VonHelmholtz invented ophthalmoscope in 1850. After this invention it was possible to view a live human retina. The indirect ophthalmoscope was invented by a doctor Ruete.
Jackson and Weber designed the stereoscopic fundus photography in 1886 which became the prototype camera technology for the century. It is attached to the patient’s head and made to expose for a 2.5-minute duration and used while the film was developed.
Fluorescein Angiography technology was used for the first time in 1961 by Novotny and Alvis who were medical students. This method has now become the gold-standard of imaging. It helps in exposing the ocular circulation during the diagnosis of vascular diseases.
The introduction of Indocyanine Green Dye (ICG) serves as further improvement. This dye is being used in cardiac blood flow studies since years. When brought with the improved sensitivity of the digital camera, the transit through the ocular circulation has become possible.
ICG highlights the neovascular component of a retinal pigment for epithelial detachment.