There are different types of eye speculum and the one which gives surgeon better access with minimal pressure on the globe is considered the best eye speculum. There are various types of eye speculum. They are:
- Barraquer wire speculum
- Pierce speculum
- Williams eye speculum
- Lang speculum
- Frankel and Sauer pediatric speculum
Barraquer wire speculum
Speculums are divided into two- wired or rigid and can be fixed or flexible. The biggest disadvantage of wired speculum when compared to rigid is the palpebral fissures width cannot be adjusted. It is extensively used for cataract expansion and phacomulsification in particular.
In this type, the interpalpebral distance is adjustable. It is a combination of rigid as well as wire speculum features.
Williams eye speculum
Surgeries such as strabismus or enucleation require a wide palpebral fissure and that is where Williams eye speculum is used. It allows width adjustment of the palpebral fissure. The lateral canthus pushes on the eye, leading to rise in intraocular pressure, when the eyes are opened wide. With patients having piercing injury, this type is recommended to avoid extra widening of palpebral fissure.
It is a rigid speculum which keeps the eyelashes out during an operation. In recent times plastic drape is used to keep the lashes out.
Frankel and Sauer pediatric speculum
This is another type which lets adjust the palpebral fissure’s width. It is designed to provide support during indirect extraction of cataract or opthalmoscopy for opening an infant’s eye.